The Development of European Kingdoms

Author: Robert W. Penry @ 2021

If we are fortunate enough to start taking our family history back into the middle and dark ages in Europe, we soon find that place names are unfamiliar.  For instance, where and what is West Francia, Austrasia, Gwenydd, etc.?
If we roll back the clock for nearly 3,000 years, we find that Europe had only two countries that exist today, Greece and Armenia.
The rest of Europe was inhabited by hundreds of tribes of various ethnic groups.  Large areas of Europe were inhabited by the Celts.  Other areas by various Germanic or Scandinavian tribes. These tribes always had leaders or chiefs and existed as separate bands that traveled for commerce or war.
This map shows where the various tribal groups lived in 1000 B.C.

Source:  Time Maps  Map of Europe at 1000BC | TimeMaps

Eventually, these tribes began to establish territorial boundaries and kingdoms emerged and the tribal chief became a prince or king.
The small kingdoms developed governments, led by the friends and relatives of the leader. Thus a privileged group arose with titles and we begin to have nobility in these small kingdoms.  As time went on, each kingdom wanted more territory, and warfare ensued.  As kingdoms were conquered, boundaries changed and kingdoms were absorbed either by warfare or perhaps by inter-kingdom marriages. Eventually, these territories came under the leadership of more powerful centralized kings, and we started having counties and districts, and even nations.  With these new larger kingdoms, came new titles of nobility. For instance, the king’s sub-ruler over a district was an earl or baron.  A sub-ruler over a county was a count.  Warriors were knights.
There are many websites that have information about these petty kingdoms, showing their leaders and years of existence.  The Geni project has a website that lists most of them.  Its link is
If you examine its website, you will notice that many of the listed kingdoms have a link.  However, these links are to other geni websites which may or may not provide further information. However, most of the following kingdoms have other sites, mostly Wikipedia articles to provide more information.  Please use Google or another search engine to look them up.  Many of these sites show maps and names of rulers.  Please note that dates are often approximations.  I have used the Geni Project as a reference to prepare the following list, rearranging categories and adding additional information. Do not assume that the years or tribes/nationalities are completely accurate.  Much is guesswork based on ancient documents.



Present Location

Tribe or Nationality


Kingdom of Bernicia or BryneichEnglandAngles547-653
Cornwall – WikipediaEnglandBritons710-926
Kingdom of DeiraEnglandAngles559-653
Kingdom of DumnoniaEnglandBritons290-710
Kingdom of East AngliaEnglandAngles6th Century-917
Kingdom of East Anglia (Saxon)EnglandSaxons7th-917
Kingdom of EbraucEngland-YorkshireBritons80BC-5th
Kingdom of ElmetEnglandBritons5th-7th Centuries
Kingdom of EnglandEnglandSaxons927-1707
Kingdom of KentEnglandJutes450-871
Kingdom of MeonwaraEngland-HampshireJutes7th Century
Kingdom of MerciaEnglandSaxons527-918
Kingdom of Middle AngliaEnglandAngles9th Century
Kingdom of Midland AngliaSee Middle Anglia  
Kingdom of North AngliaSee East Anglia  
Kingdom of NorthumbriaEnglandAngles & Saxons653-954
Kingdom of RhegedEnglandBritons450-634
Kingdom of the West SaxonsEnglandSaxons519-927
Kingdom of WightEnglandJutes534-685
Kingdom of GododdinEngland, ScotlandBritons7th-9th Centuries
Kingdom of AlbaScotlandScots900-1286
Kingdom of Dál Riata (Dalriada)Ireland/Ulster – Antrim & Scotland – Argyll, Bute & LochaberGaelic Irish, Picts & Scots498-715
Kingdom of ScotlandScotlandScots843-1707
Kingdom of StrathclydeScotlandBritons900-1100
Kingdom of the PictsScotlandPicts430-878
Kingdom of BrycheiniogWales – BreconshireBritons5th-7th Centuries
Kingdom of CeredigionWales – CardiganshireBritons5-10th Centuries
Kingdom of DeheubarthWalesBritons909-1063
Kingdom of DyfedWales – Pembrokeshire & CarmarthenshireBritons410-920
Kingdom of ErgyngWales – Breconshire, Radnorshire & England – HerefordshireBritons5th-650
Kingdom of GwentWales – MonmouthshireBritons500-942
Kingdom of GwyneddWales – Gwynedd including AngleseyBritons5th-1282
Kingdom of Morgannwg (Glamorgan)Wales – GlamorganshireBritons1080-1536
Kingdom of PowysWales – Denbighshire, Montgomeryshire, RadnorshireBritons410-1160
Kingdom of Rhwng Gwy a Hafren(Fferllys)Wales – Area between the Wye and Severn RiversBritons10th-11th Centuries
Kingdom of SeisyllwgWalesBritons680-920
High Kingdom of IrelandIrelandGaelic IrishBC – 1318
Kingdom of AilechIreland – DonegalGaelic Irish700-1185
Kingdom of AirgíallaUlster – Louth & MonaghanGaelic Irish7th-8th Centuries
Kingdom of BregaIreland – Meath, Louth & DublinGaelic Irish6th-8th Centuries
Kingdom of BreifneIreland – Leitrim, Cavan & SligoGaelic Irish6th-13th Centuries
Kingdom of ConnachtIreland – Galway, Leitrim, Mayo, Roscommon & SligoGaelic Irish1st-12 Centuries
Kingdom of CorkIreland – CorkGaelic Irish & Viking1st-12 Centuries
Kingdom of Dál nAraidiUlster – AntrimGaelic Irish588-8th Century
Kingdom of Deissi MumhainIreland – WaterfordGaelic Irish697-1244
Kingdom of Desmond (South Muinster)Ireland – Kerry, CorkGaelic Irish1118-1596
Kingdom of DublinIreland – DublinGaelic Irish & Viking839-1171
Kingdom of East BreifneIreland – County CavanGaelic Irish10th Century -1579
Kingdom of Fer Manach (Fermanagh)Uster – FermanaghGaelic Irish1st-12 Centuries
Kingdom of LeinsterIreland – LeinsterGaelic Irish7th Century BC – Present
Kingdom of LimerickIreland – LimerickGaelic Irish & Viking1st-12 Centuries
Kingdom of Luighne ConnachtIreland – Mayo & SligoGaelic Irish8th – 17th Centuries
Kingdom of Magh LuirgIrelandGaelic Irish734-1604
Kingdom of Mide (Meath)Ireland – Meath, Westmeath, Cavan, Dublin, Kildare, Longford, Louth and OffalyGaelic Irish743-1604
Kingdom of MunsterIreland – Clare, Cork, Kerry, Limerick, Tipperary & WaterfordGaelic Irish1st -16th Centuries
Kingdom of Oriel (see Airgíalla)IrelandGaelic Irish7th-8th Centuries
Kingdom of Osraige (Ossary)Ireland – Kilkenny  LaoisGaelic Irish1st -16th Centuries
Kingdom of Síol AnmchadhaIreland – GalwayGaelic Irish357-1316
Kingdom of Sliabh Lugha – MayoIrelandGaelic Irish 
Kingdom of Tara (in name only)Ireland the whole islandGaelic IrishMythical significance
Kingdom of Thomond (Tuadhmhuman or north MunsterIreland – ClareGaelic Irish1118-1543
Kingdom of Tír ChonaillIreland – DonegalGaelic Irish5th Century to 1607
Kingdom of Tír Eógain (Tyrone)Ulster – TyroneGaelic Irish1185-1616
Kingdom of TuisceairtUlsterGaelic Irish6-16th Centuries
Kingdom of UisnechIreland – WestmeathGaelic Irish7th – 8th Centuries
Kingdom of Ulidh (Ulster)Ireland/Ulster – Donegal, Derry, Antrim, Tyrone, Down, Armagh, Fermanagh, Monaghan, CavanGaelic Irish6-16th Centuries
Kingdom of Uí Cheinnselaig (Kinsella)Ireland – Carlow & WexfordGaelic Irish9th Century
Kingdom of Uí DíarmataIreland – GalwayGaelic Irish9th Century
Kingdom of Uí FailgheIreland – Offaly & KildareGaelic Irish9th Century
Kingdom of Uí Fiachrach AidhneIreland – GalwayGaelic Irish9th Century
Kingdom of Uí Fiachrach MuaidheIreland – Mayo & SligoGaelic Irish9th Century
Kingdom of Uí MaineIreland – Connacht, Galway, & RoscommonGaelic Irish367 – 9th Century
Kingdom of UmaillIreland – MayoGaelic Irish9th Century
Kingdom of WaterfordIreland – WaterfordGaelic Irish & Viking 
Kingdom of WexfordIreland – WexfordGaelic Irish 
 Central Europe   
Kingdom of ArmoricaBrittanyGauls500-700
Kingdom of Armorica-LeonBrittanyGauls500-700
Kingdom of Armorica-DomnoniaBrittanyGauls500-700
Kingdom of Armorica-PoherBrittanyGauls500-700
Kingdom of Armorica-CornouailleBrittanyGauls500-700
Kingdom of Armorica-Bro ErechBrittanyGauls500-700
Kingdom of Armorica-NantesBrittanyGauls500-700
Kingdom of FirisaNetherlandsDutch600-734
Duchy of NormandyFranceNormans (Danes)9th-Present
Kingdom of AquitaineFranceFranks629-632
Kingdom of ArlesFranceFranks933-1378
Kingdom of Austrasia and BurgundyFranceFranks613-613
Kingdom of BurgundyFranceFranks561-613
Kingdom of FranceFranceGauls Normans French987-1791
Kingdom of NeustriaFranceFranks561-613
Kingdom of Neustria and BurgundyFranceFranks634-720
Kingdom of OrleansFranceFranks511-524
Kingdom of ParisFranceFranks511-567
Kingdom of ReimsFranceFranks511-555
Kingdom of Soissons (Noviodunum)FranceFranks511-558
Kingdom of the BurgundiansFranceGermanic Franks4th-534
Kingdom of West FranciaFranceFranks843-987
AlamanniaGermany France SwitzerlandGermanic Alemannii213-9th Century
Kingdom of AustrasiaFrance Germany Belgium Luxembourg NetherlandsFranks561-718
Kingdom of the FranksFrance Germany Belgium Luxembourg NetherlandsFranks486-840
Kingdom of Middle FranciaSwitzerland, France, ItalyFranks817-855
Kingdom of LotharingiaSwitzerlandFranks855-869
Kingdom of the FranksGermanyFranks486-511
Kingdom of East FranciaGermanyFranks843-1477
Kingdom of GermanyGermanyGermanic Groups919-1792
Holy Roman EmpireGermanySaxons800-1806
Kingdom of ThuringiGermanyThuringii250-532
Kingdom of WendenGermanySaxons 
Kingdom of the SaxonsVariousSaxons400-1066
  Southern Europe   
Kingdom of the VandalsSicily Corsica Sardinia Malta BalearicsGermanic Vandals429-533
Kingdom of CandiaCreteItalians1205-1669
Kingdom of SicilyItaly/SicilyItalians1130-1816
Kingdom of ItalyItalyItalians476-493
Kingdom of the LombardsItalyGermanic Lombards568-774
Kingdom of NapleItalyItalians1282-1816
Kigdom of the OsrogothsItalyVandals493-553
Kingdom of the VisigothsSpainVisigoths418-721
Kingdom of AragonSpainSpanish1035-1516
Kingdom of ValenciaSpainSpanish1238-1707
Kingdom of MajorcaSpainSpanish1231-1344
Kingdom of AsturiasSpainSpanish718-910
Kingdom of CastileSpainSpanish1035-1516
Kingdom of LeonSpainSpanish910-1230
Kingdom of ToledoSpainSpanish1085-1469
Suebic Kingdom of GaliciaSpainSpanish410-585
Kingdom of GaliciaSpainSpanish910-1157
Kingdom of PortugalPortugalPortugese1139-1815
Kingdom of DenmarkDenmarkDanish756 – Present
Kingdom of ReitgotalandDenmark or SwedenDanish?5th Century
Kingdom of NorwayNorwayNorwegian872-Present
Kingdom of AgderNorwayNorwegian7th-987
Kingdom of FjordaneNorwayNorwegian7th?
Kingdom of GrenlandNorwayNorwegian7th?
Kingdom of GudbrandsdalNorwayNorwegian7th?
Kingdom of HadelandNorwayNorwegian7th?
Kingdom of HardangerNorwayNorwegian7th?
Kingdom of HedmarkNorwayNorwegian7th?
Kingdom of HordalandNorwayNorwegian7th-9th
Kingdom of HålogalandNorwayNorwegian7th?
Kingdom of LandNorwayNorwegian7th?
Kingdom of NamdalenNorwayNorwegian7th?
Kingdom of NordmøreNorwayNorwegian7th?
Kingdom of OpplandNorwayNorwegian7th?
Kingdom of OrkdalenNorwayNorwegian7th
Kingdom of RanrikeNorwayNorwegian7th?
Kingdom of RaumarikeNorwayNorwegian8th-9th
Kingdom of RingerikeNorwayNorwegian7th?
Kingdom of RogalandNorwayNorwegian6th-9th
Kingdom of RomsdalNorwayNorwegian7th?
Kingdom of SognNorwayNorwegian7th?
Kingdom of SolørNorwayNorwegian7th?
Kingdom of SunnmøreNorwayNorwegian7th?
Kingdom of TelemarkNorwayNorwegian7th?
Kingdom of TotenNorwayNorwegian7th?
Kingdom of TrøndelagNorwayNorwegian7th?
Kingdom of VestfoldNorwayNorwegian10th-13th
Kingdom of VestmarNorwayNorwegian7th?
Kingdom of VingulmarkNorwayNorwegian10th-11th
Kingdom of VikenNorwayNorwegian7th?
Kingdom of VossNorwayNorwegian7th?
Kingdom of SwedenSwedenSwedish973-Present
kingdom of AngelnSwedenSwedish5th Century

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